The Voices of Wawahte - Audio Accompaniment

Wawahte, as told to author Robert P. Wells, is a 15-part radio production where oral storytelling traditions and practices are shared through the stories of three Indian Residential School Survivors — Esther, Bunnie, and Stanley. Their stories are voiced by community members in Kingston, who have been moved by the very personal stories of those in Wawahte, and have offered their services to honour these stories in the spirit of love and hope.

Wawahte is a radio project division of the Resonating Reconciliation project.

Wawahte would not have been possible if not for the help of Tyton Sound's officially produced Wawahte audio book.

Wawahte was produced by: Sheila Rosalie Burtch at CFRC-FM at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario.

Kristiana Clemens introduces the Resonating Reconciliation Radio series in all 15 parts of the series. She is joined by Dr. Daniel Woolf, Principal at Queen's University, who acknowledges the Anishnawbe and Haudenosaunee traditional territory from where CFRC broadcasts from.

The voices heard in this documentary are all from the Kingston community. Some of these voices heard in this production are Aboriginal, while others are non-Aboriginal. This joint effort by the community, fostering these new relationships and forms of communication is what makes Wawahte so special.

To find out more about the book, watch this youtube audio trailer. The book itself is being generously donated to the TRC event in Edmonton and can also be purchased online here.

Please enjoy now listening to Wawahte!

 

WAWAHTE — Part 1 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "My dear friend, Moochum Joe, said that I Nabis (boy in the Cree language), had a spirit that was different from all the other white kids that he knew … that I Nabis, have been given spiritual guidance to someday draw words on paper and tell my kind how bad the Indian People are being treated, how they take their kids away, and how they do not allow them to live as who they are."
— Robert P. Wells, Author of Wawahte
(Moochum means Grandfather in the Cree language)

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, Bernard Nelson, John Sanfilippo, Robert Wells, Sharon Beaudin, Leila Reynolds, and Kevin Reed.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" and "Wache Ay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Wawahte Drum Song" — Senior Elders Nelson 2013 Tyton Sound Recording, and "Together" — David R. Maracle (flute) 2004 CD 'Calm'.

Summary: Part 1 opens with a prayer in the Oji-Cree language by Bernard Nelson, Senior Elder of the Royal Military College of Canada. Author Robert P. Wells introduces himself and his book Wawahte (meaning Northern Lights in Cree) and where it is available. Esther's story begins here, in Mammamattawa Village in Northern Ontario.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 2 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "I will tell you about the happy and sad times of my childhood in the hope that you will better understand what parents and elders now talk about – what it was really like to live off the land – what it was really like to be taken from your parents, put on a train and to be carried off to an Indian Residential School."
— Esther Faries, from Wawahte the Book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, Shannon Brooks, Inge Wells.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Friendship Song" — Art Napoleon 2006 CD 'Miyoskamin'

Summary: Esther's story continues as she talks about Rev. Neville Clark's new church, community/family life, hunting, fishing, and working for The Hudson's Bay Company in Northern Ontario. She talks about WWII and fur trapping in the winter, and puppies in the summer.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 3 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "Even as a seven-year-old girl, I found the way we were treated demeaning. We were being treated as if we were captive, wild people, who had to be tamed."
— Esther Faries, from Wawahte the Book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, Shannon Brooks, Sharon Beaudin, Inge Wells, John Sanfilippo.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Our Time" — Ohwihsha 2013 CD 'The Clearing'.

Summary: Esther's story continues as she talks about summer life practicing traditional ways and religion before she moved to Pagwa, lost her mother, got a new step mom, and had her innocence shattered when she went to live at the Anglican Pelican Lake Indian Residential School in Sioux Lookout, Ontario.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 4 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "If the runaway was a boy, we were all brought to the dining hall for a bench party … Whatever the punishment, it was intended to establish authority over a rag-tag and defeated bunch of kids. This was so obvious by the smug way Rev. Marshall would announce the surrender of those spirit-broken, humiliated boys or girls whom he took such pleasure in beating."
— Esther Faries, from Wawahte the Book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, Sharon Beaudin, Inge Wells, Kevin Reed, Robert Wells, Carli Suenage.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Together" — David R. Maracle (flute) 2004 CD 'Calm', "Little Charlie Wenjack" — Willie Dunn 1978 Album 'Akwesasne Notes'.

Summary: Esther's story continues as she talks about living at the Anglican Pelican Lake Residential School in Sioux Lookout, Ontario. She describes the dormitories, bedtime, daily routines, meals, rules, classrooms, personal hygiene, recreation, weekends, and the severe punishments runaways would face if caught. She also discusses Rev. Marshall's moral beliefs, as well as Christmas when her Poppa visits.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 5 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "We would also ask the Spirit Angels to take dream letters to our Parents and Grandparents and bring their dream letters back to us. All mail to and from children was censored. Any mail written in Indian was destroyed. Basically, the only letters we were allowed to send our Parents were the lies that the teacher wrote on the blackboard and we copied as our own. There was no limit to our misery. Yet, in our own very special way, we found moments of Peace with Wawahte!"
— Esther Faries, from Wawahte the Book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, Sharon Beaudin, Inge Wells.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Going Home" — Buffy Sainte-Marie 1992 CD 'Coincidences And Likely Stories', "Oo Wa Gitchie Manitou" — Wapistan and The Legends Band 1995 CD 'Music from The Legend's Project — I Am An Eagle'

Summary: Esther's story continues as she talks about living at the Anglican Pelican Lake Residential School in Sioux Lookout, Ontario. She tells of how Aboriginal cultural ceremonies were taboo, and her thoughts on Rev. Marshall's death. Esther experiences sexual assault by an employee of the train company while riding the train, and the new reverend, Rev. Shields, did nothing when she shared her assault to him. The rest of her story details when her sister is taken to the hospital, and when she finally leaves Pelican Lake Indian Residential School. Esther's story is summarized and her last words of wisdom regarding The Web of Life are shared.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 6 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "What I hope that you get out of the Book (Wawahte) is an understanding of the history and the dilemma that people are faced with today, and that we, as a Nation, can live in better harmony than we have in the past – and, that we can all enjoy the fruits and benefits that the great Country of Canada provides."
— Robert P. Wells, Author of Wawahte

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, Sharon Beaudin, Kevin Reed, Robert Wells, Carli Suenage, John Sanfilippo, Inge Wells.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Broken" — Bear Fox 2010 CD 'Rich Girl', "Old Ways" — Jerry Alfred & The Medicine Beat 1996 CD 'Nendaa-Go Back', "Inuit Children's Game" — Kasugat & Ishmatuk 1954 Folkways FE4444

Summary: This segment in the series discusses the Aboriginal history between the French and the English in Canada. It covers the timeline of forced assimilation through topics such as the 1876 Indian Act, Residential Schools, "60's Scoop", Aboriginal Healing Foundation established, Apologies, Federal compensation and the United Nation 1948 "Prevention And Punishment Of The Crime Of Genocide". It also looks into the aftermath of these events and the creation of support programs, settlement agreements, CEP payments, and the IAP Process.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 7 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "There is a premise that the Residential School Program of forced assimilation was well intended. No such argument can be made for how the Program was executed. The people in charge – The Government Of Canada, abandoned the principals of accountability to the most trusted of Institutions – The Churches, to deliver the Program, thus absolving themselves of any responsibility."
— Robert P. Wells, Author of Wawahte

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, John Sanfilippo, Inge Wells, Kevin Reed.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Saulteaux Lullaby" — Dorothy Francis 1963 Folkways FE4312, "Kawakuitl Lullaby" — Chief Dan Cramer 1967 Folkways FE4523, "Seven Generations" — ElizaBeth Hill and The Legends Band 1995 CD 'Music from The Legends Project: I Am An Eagle'

Summary: This segment in the series covers topics such as 1996 rep on Aboriginal Peoples, cross-cultural relationships, oral traditions, the Hudson's Bay Company fur trade, the spread of disease, Aboriginal identity threatened, land loss, and how the IRS system was a joint venture between the Government of Canada and the Churches. It also discusses how good deeds inspire further good deeds through a ripple effect.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 8 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "Change is on the horizon. We need to know this dark chapter of history if we are to see the sun rise upon all Canadians thriving together in greater human harmony. The future does not just happen – it is created!"
— Bunnie Galvin from Wawahte the Book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, John Sanfilippo, Bernard Nelson, Robert Wells, Inge Wells, Sharon Beaudin, Carli Suenage.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" and "Wache Ay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Wawahte Drum Song" — Senior Elder Bernard Nelson 2013 Tyton Sound Recording, "Golden Feather" — Robbie Robertson 1994 CD 'Music For The Native Americans'

Summary: Bunnie begins her story when she was taken by her father to the Roman Catholic McIntosh Lake Indian Residential School near Vermillion Bay in Northwestern Ontario. She begins to tell of her time at the residential school.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 9 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "It then should come as no surprise, that my hero is Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. His famous words:
"I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a Nation
where they will not be judged by the color of their skin – but by the content
of their character."
These words remind us – that having values is important, but living them is much more important, and that – words without deeds are nothing! A single person can express in words a vision for all mankind, but it takes the commitment of millions of the masses to make that vision a reality."
— Bunnie Galvin, from Wawahte the Book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, Carli Suenage, Jacob, Inge Wells.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Piney Wood Hills" — Buffy Sainte-Marie 1970 CD 'The Best Of Buffy Sainte-Marie', "Children of the World" — Susan Aglukark, Willie Dunn, Fara, Don Ross, Shingoose 1994 CD 'Children Of The World', "Heritage" — Shelley Morningsong 2006 CD 'Out Of The Ashes', "O Freedom" — Odetta 1956 Album 'Spiritual Trilogy'

Summary: Bunnie continues her story by sharing what life was like after her time at residential school was over. Bunnie talks about living in the bush with her first husband Joe, and then her second husband Garry. Bunnie reflects on her life, and cherishes her heritage. She highlights the importance of education through her brother Richard, and how she is glad to have received an education. She shares her "Words Of Wisdom" and her thoughts on her hero, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and her sons.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 10 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "Examples of the bravery and commitment of Aboriginal Veterans are as follows: from the Battle of "Queenston Heights" in the War of 1812, up through World War I – 1914-1918, World War II – 1939-1945, and the Korean War – 1950-1953 – Aboriginal people have fought long and hard, volunteering en masse for active duty."
— Elder Stanley Stephens from Wawahte the Book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, John Sanfilippo, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, Inge Wells.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Together" — David R. Maracle (flute) 2004 CD 'Calm', "Song of the Land" — Susan Aglukark 1994 CD 'Arctic Rose', "O Canada" — Asani 1982 CD 'Listen'.

Summary: Elder Stanley Stephens begins his story by recalling his first day at Pagwa Village day school in Northern Ontario, where he was strapped badly for speaking "Indian". He felt the negative influences of the schools were balanced by the positive influences he received from the Elders. Shortly after his family moves he begins to attend Constance Lake Indian Reserve Day School in Northern Ontario. Indian children were prohibited under the Indian Act from attending school after the age of 16 years — therefore lessening their chances for a good job. In order to get around this, Stanley attended high school in Sudbury through the Canada Manpower Program. He then went on to the Canadian Rangers, and then became an Aboriginal War Veteran. Even after serving his country however, land could not be owned by Aboriginal War Veterans. This section ends by talking about William Semiss, John Campbell, Max Basque, Lance Corporal Johnston Potash, Thomas George, and Tommy Prince.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 11 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "We, as Canada's First People, hold the policies of forced integration and the Indian Residential School Program in moral social contempt, but, so do most Canadians – except that, most of them know little about the topic …. The Clock of Time only moves forward! Yet, by studying the consequences of the Indian Residential Schools' forced assimilation, we can gain the understanding needed to fit aboriginal cultural identity into the broader Canadian society of today."
— Elder Stanley Stephens from Wawahte the Book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, John Sanfilippo, Daniel Woolf, Inge Wells, Leila Reynolds.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Together" — David R. Maracle (flute) 2004 CD 'Calm'

Summary: Elder Stanley Stephens continues sharing his thoughts a variety of topics, such as anti-sealing killing Aboriginal ways of life, the Canadian fur industry collapse, hunting as a rite of passage, Stanley's perspective of the Aboriginal People in Canada, victims of generations of cultural genocide, and that money alone will not cure a political travesty. Stanley urges that there is an urgent need to find a new way forward, and that public awareness and action are the challenge. He shares that "Now is the time to listen to the truths", and that the tools of change need to be community based to fix the problems and find solutions. He notes that First Nation problems are problems for all Canadians, and that while there are treaty rights challenges, there is "unity in diversity". He then talks about re-engaging the past regarding the policy of forced integration, alienation, abuse, legacy of broken promises, separating children from their families, customs and traditions, and the need for healing for people who endured the Indian Residential School experience.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 12 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "Like thousands upon thousands of others, I left Residential School a broken Spirit. Without a spirit, you have no spirituality. Without spirituality there is no Hope – there is no Peace! Such is our shared legacy. For most Canadians, this is "Canada's Secret" … This University – can and must – help us to unlock this Secret by educating all pupils to learn about this historic travesty."
— from Chief, Dr. Robert Joseph, from Wawahte the Book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, Leila Reynolds, Kevin Reed, John Sanfilippo.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Our Land — Our Ways" — Klan Wi 2011 CD 'Celebrate', "Amazing Grace" — David R. Maracle 2008 CD 'the Other Side'

Summary: Dr. Chief Robert Joseph's story begins with his Indian Residential School Survivors Society Honorary Doctor of Laws Acceptance Speech. He was sent to Residential School at 6 years old, and lost 10 years of his life there. During his time there he experienced many hardships, harm, loneliness, and left as a "broken spirit". The rest of this segment covers the Indian Residential School Apologies. They include: 2008 — Prime Minister Stephen Harper's Apology, 1993 — "Anglican Church of Canada" Archbishop Michael Peer's Apology, 2009 — "Roman Catholic Church" No Apology, however Pope Benedict offers his expression of sorrow, 1994 — "Presbyterian Church of Canada" Apology by the 120th General Assembly, 1998 — "United Church of Canada" Rev. Bill Phipps Moderator Apology.

WAWAHTE — Part 13 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "Many Indian Residential School Survivors, their Families and their Communities, continue to face challenges and hardships today as the result of the tragic Canadian Governments' policies of forced integration and assimilation practices exercised through 150 years of the Indian Residential School experiment. The legacy of this experience led our Peoples to complete oppression and economic dependency on the Crown. Now is the time to challenge and change this legacy. The outcome of this challenge will determine whether our children face a darker tomorrow – or one thriving in greater human harmony with the rest of Canada."
— Chief Roger Wesley, Constance Lake First Nation, Constance Lake, Ontario, Canada from Wawahte the book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, John Sanfilippo, Daniel Woolf, Sheila Rosalie, Victoria Pearson, Josh Travers, Mackenzie Duffy, Sarah Beach, Danielle Long, Danica St. Denis, Jenna Smallgang, Maddie Fellowes, Camille Pearson, Aaron Kennedy, Aiden Jackson Kelso, Jessie Hartman, Jacob, Paul Robertson, Kevin Reed, Inge Wells.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Mother Earth" — Shingoose 2007 CD 'Natural Tan', "Giving Thanks" — Yodeca featuring David R. Maracle; Sherry Procunier with the Mohawk Prayer 2001 CD 'Yodeca', "Together" — David R. Maracle (flute) 2004 CD 'Calm', "Friendship Song" — Art Napoleon 2006 CD 'Miyoskamin'

Summary: This section of the series includes the acknowledgements and Appendix III from Wawahte. It includes the 2007 UN Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples — select excerpts, including "Resolution 61295". It covers the discussion points and reflections from Wawahte. The epigraph from Wawahte is worded by Chief Roger Wesley, Constance Lake First Nations, and Dr. Chief Robert Joseph.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 14 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: "One of the things I loved about reading the book (Wawahte) – I had to read it before even producing (the audio of) it. I was struck by just how the approach and care was taken. Throughout the book there is this continuity. The idea is to bring about understanding and reconciliation, and the way to get past things like prejudice – it's not done on a political level; it's done through conversation; it's done through education; it's done through understanding; it's done through just talking to people and understanding where they come from. Bob was able to round up all these volunteers to read the book …. The finished product became this community effort in the end. It really had this feeling of this Community (Kingston, Ontario, Canada) coming together to tell these Stories."
— John Sanfilippo, Tyton Sound, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Producer of the Audio of Wawahte the book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, John Sanfilippo, Sheila Rosalie, Daniel Woolf, Robert Wells, Kevin Reid.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Together" — David R. Maracle (flute) 2004 CD 'Calm', "Residential School" and "Nendaa-Go Back" — Jerry Alfred & The Medicine Beat 1996 CD "Nendaa-Go Back"

Summary: This section of the series includes comments by radio producer Sheila Rosalie, and her interview with author Robert P. Wells and audio producer John Sanfilippo of "Tyton Sound" Kingston Ontario, Canada. Robert Wells's tribute to Dr Chief Robert Joseph and Peter Trueman's book review of Wawahte is included in this section as well.

 

WAWAHTE — Part 15 (MP3 of full program)

Quote: QUILTING AND THE WEB OF LIFE — by Esther Faries

Quilting is truly a Labour Of Love
Love for the memories in life
For the one intended
And the treasured craft that it is.

Like Nature, it takes both the big and the little pieces of fabric to tell the Story.
Humans have not woven the Web Of Life …
We are but one thread within it.
Whatever we do to The Web — we do to ourselves.

All things are bound together
All things are connected.
Like my quilt —
The many pieces of fabric are sewed by different coloured thread.

— Esther Faries, from Wawahte the book, by Robert P. Wells

Featured Speakers: Kristiana Clemens, Daniel Woolf, Sheila Rosalie, John Sanfilippo, Jacob, Carley Suenage, Inge Wells, Sharon Beaudin.
Music: "Red Riddim" featuring Eastern Eagle – A Tribe Called Red 2013 CD 'Nation II Nation', "Wawatay" — Wapistan, 1993 CD 'Wapistan Is Lawrence Martin', "Together" — David R. Maracle (flute) 2004 CD 'Calm'

Summary: This last section of the series provides final words of wisdom from Stanley, Bunny, and Esther, with comments from radio producer Sheila Rosalie.

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