Research on C/C Radio

A great resource on Broadcasting in Canada

History of Struggle: The Global Story of Community Broadcasting Practices, or a Brief History of Community Radio
Gretchen King, July 4 2017
Embracing the de-Westernizing debate in communication research (Wang, 2013) and the call to decolonize media studies (Thussu, 2009), this article contextualizes the practices of contemporary community radio stations through internationalizing the history of community broadcasting. In contrast to other histories of community media (Lewis, 1984; Milan, 2013; Rennie, 2006; Rodriguez, 2001), this research reflects on the growth and spread of community radio practices analysed in four distinct periods of development. These periods organize the activities and efforts of communities (social movement actors, non-state/corporate actors) deploying radio technology to create media by and for the community. This analysis assembles a longer timeline and global (internationalized) landscape for mapping the development of community radio. This article contributes new analysis that indicates the spread of community radio as an institution is rooted in a history of struggle and media activism engaged among disparate movements and actors who often captured the airwaves in defiance of state-run and for-profit broadcasters.

Constucting Idetntiy Though Community Radio : Community Building in Newfoundland and Norther Ireland
Erin McKee, April 2012
This research examines the social and cultural impacts of community radio projects in rural Newfoundland (Norris Point and Tilting) and in West Belfast, Northern Ireland. The study considers the following questions: How do people construct community identity through community radio? To what extent does it provide ‘a voice for the voiceless’?

The research found that, particularly in conjunction with community festivals, community radio stations can provide a hopeful, fun, and unique space for community engagement. Community radios can also be used to revitalise areas economically. Through their potential for teamwork across different constituencies, they can provide new possibilities for literacy and media education, technical skills development, tourism initiatives, and the promotion of local knowledge, language, and culture. The research also highlights barriers to participation and challenges faced by these non-profit, smallscale community radio stations.

In order to function effectively, that is, to fulfil its community building initiatives,community radio requires active participation, lest it be simply more noise on the dial.

Campus/community radio in Canada: linking listeners to broadcasters with web 2.0 technologies 
Barry Rooke, May 11, 2012
This thesis is an investigation of campus/community radio in Canada and an exploration of its motivations and methods of using social media as a tool to interact with listeners. It develops and applies a methodology referred to as S.M.I.L.E.S., a methodology to create triangulation and validate results when researching in areas involving social media and minimal previous literature available. Radio station staff and volunteer programmers use social media, traditional digital and non-digital methods to gather feedback about the show and/or station, promote the show and/or station, provide additional content to the listener off-air, communicate about the station itself, and achieve personal, station, and community growth. Results suggest that campus/community radio members use social media very differently than commercial or public radio station. As a whole, the campus/community radio sector is generally slow in providing support and policy when facilitating technological change, which has resulted in tentative use and lack of support for social media. Geographical location is also irrelevant as regards the utilization of social media. Also, programmers must be careful in identity management when engaging in online communication, as well as using social media as a fundraising tool and forum for information dissemination. Finally, stations need to consider implementing policy surrounding social media in order to facilitate growth within the industry.

New Media Technology use at Canadian Campus Radio Stations
Charlotte Bourne, September 2010
New media has had a significant impact in Canadian society, particularly for traditional broadcasters such as radio. The impact and use of new media has not been fully explored for one particular sector of radio: the campus and community radio sector. This project quantifies the types of new media technologies being used at English and bilingual campus radio stations and uses diffusion of innovations theory to explain why certain technologies have been adopted. A key factor limiting the use of new media is the high cost of adoption which puts potential benefits out of the reach of stations because of their limited resources. A science, technology and society (STS) framework is then used to explore the tensions between the technological governance of the CRTC, the democratic interests of society, and the interests of campus and community stations

Bibliography on campus and community radio
Candace Mooers, August 26, 2009
The bibliography covers academic journal articles and M.A. and Ph.D. dissertations (using several search engines available through the York and Ryerson Libraries). I limited the entries to campus and/or community radio studies. I left out studies on broader alternative media, for example, as well as an entry on Can-Con regulations and commercial radio in Canada. It is international in scope. This version of the bibliography does not include articles published in popular periodicals, conference proceedings, and a wide range of government documents.

Bibliography Excerpted from report to Canadian Heritage 
EKOS Research Associates, March 31, 2008
In 2007-2008, EKOS Research Associates conducted a study for Canadian Heritage called “Canada’s Community and Campus Radio Broadcasting Sectors: An Analysis of the Sector’s Roles and Impacts in the Context of Current Technological and Media Sector Changes.” The report was delivered in October of 2008. This is the report's bibliography, useful for anyone who is studying the campus and community radio sector in Canada.

Radio: Gifts of Sound
Frieda Werden, July 2004
“I’ve been a community radio practitioner for more than thirty years, and during that time have observed several kinds of controversy erupting within the field.   In this paper, I will examine radio and especially community radio in terms of gift economy concepts, and explore the hypothesis that much of the conflict that emerges within community radio can be seen as a conflict between a nurturing gift model and a hierarchical or patriarchal-exchange model.”

Re-conceptualizing Radio Broadcasting in Canada — The Demise of CBC/SRC: Making Room for the Community
Nina Corfu, April 6, 2004
“Once upon a time there existed an independent public corporation in Canada, free from government interference and immune to the mood swings of the marketplace, whose duty it was to visit Canadians each night through their living room receivers.  Canadians felt that they were treated well by this nightly visitor; they enjoyed hearing their neighbours narrating familiar stories over the airwaves.  As the years past, listeners found that they were increasingly unfamiliar with the voices on the radio and the stories being told.  CBC/SRC, the media body that used to negotiate so effectively between private and public interests, has since sacrificed its ability to represent the interests of Canadians in order to promote the economic and political agenda of the state.  By analyzing the ways in which private interests circumvent those of the public, and by revealing the flaws inherent in a public broadcasting service that does not answer to its citizens, it becomes clear that the first step towards re-conceptualizing public radio broadcasting in Canada is through increased awareness of community media.”

A Review of the Available Studies on the Impact of Community Radio on its Community
Jim Riva, March 29, 2006
“I was forewarned at the beginning of this brief research project that I may have difficulties finding adequate quantitative data to examine a balance of major, medium, and small markets. I did receive access to some BBM data and CRTC and Statistics Canada data. As well, I received a handful of campus/community station surveys. [But] it is the qualitative information that provides the most significant community impact statements - the stories I received from the stations. Moreover, academic literature on the value of community radio to its local community is supported by these stories. The following is an overview of the types of information and data I have reviewed. It identifies areas where impact on community can be better understood.”

Campus Community Radio Bibliography
Alan Wong, 2002
Compilation of sources from previous papers

Community Radio, Operational Structures, and PAR Methodology: A Case Study
Alan Wong, 2002
“Access in and of itself, however, does not merely materialize out of thin air. In order for access to exist and sustain itself in organizations like community radio stations, certain operational frameworks must be established and maintained. In turn, these frameworks themselves must involve an element of democratic participation at a managerial level to ensure that the empowerment of subordinated voices continues and stratification between social groups does not constantly recur. This is where the application of Participatory Action Research (PAR) principles can be very useful.”

Embrace It with Scepticism: The Impact of New Media Technology on the Community-Based Radio Sector
Alan Wong, November 28, 2001
“Community-based radio, in particular, requires special attention. It is a sector of whose existence few Canadians are even aware, partly because of its small size, partly because it is not television, and partly because its programming is intentionally outside of the mainstream. Yet the existence of this sector is vital to the health of the Canadian broadcasting system. Although it has been positioned as an ‘alternative’ format, the concept of community-based radio really should be a mainstream idea, for it is the only format that allows the public the opportunity for full participation in the production of media. As Tim McLaughlin notes, ‘Interested individuals could participate in announcing, production, news, management (sic) and administration’ (4). Even the CBC and community-access television do not have the mechanisms in place for this kind of active involvement by ordinary citizens."

Who Gets to Speak?: Access and the Electronic Mass Media in Development Communications
Alan Wong - November 22, 2001
“What is needed is a new approach, a way of looking at and using the mass media that subverts the producer-audience hierarchy … Consequently, the flow of communication would no longer be one way; instead, it would flow in many different directions, thus making empowerment a possibility for the disenfranchised. This cannot be accomplished, however, without a re-conceptualization of access, in which access is viewed as an active process rather than a passive one. Access, in this sense, allows citizens of the Third World the opportunity to disrupt oppressive hegemonic structures that are perpetrated and perpetuated by the Northern mass media, especially the electronic mass media. The two specific types of electronic mass media that are most conducive to achieving this access are community radio and the Internet.”